ORC DC Health Institute

Nanotech Developments in the Health Industry

Women and Penis Size – What Really Matters to Her

Women & penis size … Surely there have been more of hypotheses on whether penis-size really makes a difference to women. Continue reading as one find reality if these sizes of these penis really makes a difference to women.

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All the Developments in Heart Nanotechnology So Far

Nanotechnology is a branch of science which deals with materials and structures on a nanoscale level. This technology has brought hope in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of life threats in the world.

Computer Aided Design Developments

The causative agents of CAD involve many cellular disease processes and biological factors that can be mitigated through therapeutic methods aided by nanotechnology. Using this technology to treat heart-related ailments has brought possibilities like treating defective heart valves, treating arterial plaques and helping researchers on better medicines.

One of the breakthroughs in this field of medicine is finding a way to deliver cardiac stem cells to damaged heart tissue. Scientists attach nanovesicles which are attracted to injured stem cells in order to increase the number of stem cells delivered to the injured tissue.

In the University of Santa Barbara, scientists have devised a nanoparticle that can deliver a drug to a plaque at the wall of an artery. This development in nanotechnology is achieved by attaching a protein known as a peptide to a nanoparticle which then attaches itself to the plaque’s surface.

Researchers plan to use this method to put imaging drugs and particles to determine the amount of existing arterial plaques and to treat it as well. The treatment of the patch is crucial because it is a significant cause of cardiovascular disease.

Drug Developments and Breakthroughs

Harvard Medical School and MIT did research and identified a new process to attach a different peptide which is a nanoparticle carrying drug. The peptide attaches itself to a membrane exposed to damaged artery walls, thereby allowing the nanoparticle to release the drug to the damaged part.

This drug helps in preventing the growth of scar tissue that can result in clogging of the arteries. The particles can be designed to issue the drug for several days.

This technology is among the first sure methods that can be used to deliver a drug to an injured vascular tissue correctly. The particles are specifically targeted to a structure called basement structure that lines the arterial walls and is exposed when those walls are damaged.

In the University of South Carolina, experts are combining gold nanoparticles with collagen protein. If there are wrong levels of collagen in the heart valves, this may affect the functioning of the valves.

High quantities of the collagen make the valves to be stiff while low levels make them floppy. Nanotechnology is used by combining the gold nanoparticles with collagens to change the mechanical properties of the valves, providing the possibility to repair malfunctioning heart valves with no need for surgery.

The implications of the venture go way beyond repairing valves; researchers are set to use the same principle in nanomaterials to heal wounds and cancer treatment. It would be achieved by excluding the tumor and keep the cancer cells from spreading.

Imaging and Detection Advancements

At imperial college in London, scientists are using a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) which is a device that helps in producing improved images of live muscles of the heart than it was previously possible. The experts use a nanopipet to inject drugs that stimulate beta muscles in specific portions of the cells.

The beta muscles cause the heart to contract. The method of activating beta muscles aids researchers in determining the differences between healthy and faulty heart muscle cells an endeavor that can lead to advancements in the use of drugs called beta blockers and design of future treatments.

The named beta-blockers slow down the development of heart failure which is an excellent improvement in the field of therapeutic approach to treating abnormal heart rhythms. The beta blockers prevent adrenaline from affecting the cells of the heart by targeting beta receptors.

White blood cells are tasked with protecting the body from foreign invaders and infectious diseases. However, when these cells attack the LDL molecules, they cause plaque deposits on the walls of the artery.

Rutgers’ researchers have invented a nanoparticle named nanolipoblocker that is designed to bind itself to the white blood cells and prevent them from attacking the LDL cholesterol molecules. This is the latest technique in the fight against cardiovascular disease.

Experts at the State University of New Jersey proposed to devise a way to rescue clogged arteries via attacking how harmful cholesterol causes inflammation and buildup at specific blood vessels. The approach to treat the disease thwarts a biological process that is hugely beneficial and necessary.

Nanoparticle Applications

Studies in various species of mice have revealed that using nanoparticles to target delivery of clot tPA drug can drastically reduce the needed dosage for the drug leading to reduced side effects like internal bleeding. The drug preventing clotting was attached to a group of nanoparticles that break the turbulent flow of blood especially the one formed by the restricted flow of blood due to a clot.

Nanoparticles targeting proteins common to blood clots have been invented to deliver bismuth –a chemical element- to unstable plaques and clots in the bloodstream. This chemical element enhances CAT scan images, and the technique has been shown in labs in testing clots in mice.

This idea will be used by researchers to locate clots and unstable plaque that could break and block arteries. The technique will be a significant boost in curing heart-related diseases once fully implemented.

A research done in Manchester’s School of Materials is geared to developing a nanoscale sensor which is coated in DNA. This DNA binds to a chemical named myoglobin that increases in blood plasma in a heart attack and can be detected and measured by an electric test.

This technique is used in many hospitals to determine whether a patient has had a heart attack. Experts state that this advancement in the detection of heart attack will improve the rate of survival after a heart attack.

Another way that has been introduced by scientists is the use of nanotubes to alter adult stem cells into a type that will aid in restoring injured heart tissues. The method has been adopted since a patient’s heart is incapable of initiating a self-repair process.

Nanotechnology can be seen as the answer to the battle against cardiovascular diseases. The advancements in the medical world and research institutes have brought hope to many patients who are suffering from different heart ailments.

What is Nanobiotechnology?

Nanobiotechnology is a science in which apparatus from nanotechnology are designed and used in the study of biological marvels.

It is the learning and application of very minute things and can be applied across other science disciplines like engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology and material science.

Nanobiotechnology entails the combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology through which usual micro-technology is joined to the molecular biological method in real.

Then, atomic grade technologies can be produced by integrating biological systems to control biological system varied properties on the molecular basis.

Nanobiotechnology might ease a lot of life sciences avenues through incorporating nanotechnology and information technology applications in modern-day biological issues.

Benefits of NanoBioTechnology

The inception of Nanobiotechnology has come with various benefits which include the following;


  • Efficient drug targeting which is achievable by capitalizing on the diverse pathophysiological diseased tissues features.
  • Enhancement of drug efficiency and drug toxicity reduction-this is possible through loading of drugs on nanoparticles, which alters tissue and cell distribution and culminates into an enhanced selective biologically active compounds delivery.
  • Selective localization of nanosystems in sore tissues.
  • Improvement of nanosystems in inflamed tissues and tumors- through enhanced permeability alongside tumors’ lymphatic drainage leading to healthier retention and transmission.
  • Nanoparticles will be able to deliver important drugs overcoming meninges.
  • Varied nanoproducts will be gathered in higher concentrations, unlike usual drugs.


  • It can cause various lung pathologies-they to include lung necrosis, peribronchial inflammation, interstitial inflammation and epithelioid granuloma.
  • An experiment entailing Intra-tracheal setting up of particles of carbon nanotube in mice.
  • This is contributed by the intense production of toxicity by nanotube.
  • Risk of nanoparticles getting into central nervous systems through either olfactory pathway axons or systematic circulation.
  • The possibility of nanoparticles toxicity extrapolating into gastrointestinal system, thus leading to inflammatory bowel ailments.
  • This toxicity is related to its capability to initiate releasing of pro-inflammatory mediators culminating in organ damage and inflammatory response.

Application of nanobiotechnology

Nanobiotechnology has made a significant impact in the clinical and medical fields.

This technology is being applied in a couple of medical areas.

Some nanobiotechnology products are still being subjected to experiments to boost their ability.

Below are some of the applications of nanobiotechnology:

1.Therapeutic Applications

Nanotechnology is able to offer new drug formulations with minimal side effects.

In this instant, it provides the following services;

• Gene delivery-nanobiotechnology has helped in repairing of impaired genes in human beings.

This is possible through the introduction of minimal immunogenic nanosized gene carriers instead of the doubtful viral vectors.

• Ensures enhanced dental healthcare-it is projected that nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in dental care.

This will be through the great use of biotechnology, nanorobotics, and nanomaterials to sustain better teeth healthcare.

• Drug delivery-nanoparticles can be transported to various targeted sites inclusive of areas not reached by standard areas.

The nanoparticle is attached to the therapeutic then transmitted to the site of infection or disease by using radio magnetic.

• Biopharmaceuticals-nanobiotechnology has the ability to generate reliable drugs which conventional pharmaceuticals are not able to.

• Cardiac therapy-currently, nanobiotechnology is playing a vital role in modern-day cardiovascular science.

It provides promising tools in tissue engineering, imaging, and diagnosis.

2.Diagnostic applications

The available diagnostic methods of many diseases rely on the manifestation of seen symptoms prior to medical practitioners revealing the illness which the patient might be suffering from.

However, before these symptoms appear, treatment might be less effective.

It is very important to diagnose and treat diseases before symptoms manifest.

Nucleic acid diagnostics are able to detect diseases and pathogens at an earlier stage making treatment more feasible.

Modern day technology, for instance, PCR, polymerase chain reaction leads to such devices and tests, however, nanotechnology is increasing the options.

That will culminate into greater efficiency and sensitivity.

Challenges for Nanobiotechnology

• Devising a way an applicable method of determining the toxicity of engineered Nano-materials in the coming 5-15 years.

Furthermore, coming up with ways of forecasting human health Nano-materials effects on the environment and humans.

• Coming up with revere systems to assess exact impacts of engineered Nano-materials on the matters environment and health over the whole lifespan.

• To properly design tools for assessing environmental and human risks.

• Doubt on the efficiency of innovation scalability, patience, limited resources, and funding.

Nanobiotechnology Future Prospects

The future consequences of nanobiotechnology have really sparked a serious debate.

It is predicted that it might suggest the implementation of various new devices and materials possibly useful in energy production, medicine, biomaterials, and electronics field.

This view raises many issues as current technology.

Nanomaterial environmental impacts and toxicity problems alongside their possible global economic effects.

These worries have spearheaded a debate among governments and groups on if it is better to stage statutory regulations on nanobiotechnology.

Regardless of these countable disputes, nanobiotechnology seems to possess a bright future.

It is expected to spearhead innovations by playing a key role in a variety of biomedical applications.

These biomedical applications include therapy to molecular imaging, biosensors, biomarkers and drug delivery.

Furthermore, prime research is another vital biomedical application.

It targets particular drug therapy alongside early disease diagnosis and treatment.

Currently, quantum dot technology has already been introduced in clinical diagnosis.
Advancement of highly sensitive and specific ways of sensing proteins and nucleic acids.

The unending research and improvement of nanomedicine have brought forth various chances for application in various medical disciplines.

Investigations are currently underway in relation to its future application in regenerative and diagnostic medicine.

Diseased cells detection is expected to become faster, allowing the treating of diseased cells before spreading to the rest of the body parts.

People suffering from weakened organ functions and traumatic injuries are to benefit from nanomedicine usage.


It is evident that nanobiotechnology is still in its initial stages.

Therefore, much research and unearthing are still underway.

Generally, nanobiotechnology is dedicated to bringing forth the sense of nearly unfathomably smaller device nearer to reality.

As the years go by the effects from this development is expected to be vast to the extent of having an impact in almost all science fields.

Nanobiotechnology provides a number of uses in the world of medicine.

Innovations like drug delivery mechanisms are only the beginning of something bigger.

In the future, there is a possibility of finding a cure for any disease.

Most of the scientists are now championing the advancement of nanobiotechnology advancement.

An Overview of Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is simply a branch of medicine that involves the knowledge as well as nanotechnology tools.

It is used for the treatment and prevent of diseases.

It can be used in various applications such as in biosensors, diagnostic devices, tissue engineering. In addition, Nanomedicine involves using nanoscale-materials like biocompatible nanoparticles as well as nanorobots for purposes of diagnosis, delivery, actuation or rather sensing purposes in a living organism.

Therefore, we can define Nanomedicine as an application of nanomaterials or rather nanoparticles for medicine.

Whereby, nanoparticles acts as a form of transport-for drugs thus can go places onto which drugs would not be able to-go on their own,

Often, nanoparticles are engineered and designed-to package as well as transport drugs directly onto where they are needed. The approach is used to ensure that the drugs causes most-harm in the particular as well as intended area of the tumor-cancer in which they are delivered to and in-turn reduces collateral damages to the
surrounding healthy tissues as well as the side-effects.

Introduction to Nanomedicine

According to the recent study of people treated-for cancer as children in the US from the 1970s-1999; it was found that despite the fact there has been an increase in the survival rates over the years, it was surprising that the cancer survivors lives a low quality life which was more worse for those treated in the 1990s.

In addition, on average, 70 percent of childhood cancer-survivors experience various side-effects from their treatments that include secondary cancers though the survival rates has improve and the population of childhood-cancer survivors continues to grow world-wide.

Apparently, these side-effects cause stress for survivors as well as to their families and in-turn increase demand on health-system, Thanks to the introduction of a new area of medicine-nanomedicine; it has brought hope for better cancer treatment for
children with fewer side-effects as well as improved quality of life that is,
for cancer survivors,

The Beginning of Nanomedicine…

The first cancer-nanomedice known as Doxil was approved by the US-Food & Drug Administration in 1995.

doxil diagam

This drug has been use for treating adult cancers such

  • Multiple Myelma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Karposi’s sarcoma; a rare cancer

that tend to affect individuals with immune deficiency like HIV and Aids.

Today, there are various new nanomedicine treatments for adult-cancers on the market.

However, a limited number of such medications have been approved to be
effective for children’s cancers.

How Nanomedicine works

The nanoparticle drug-delivery systems often work in different ways. Apart from
carrying the drugs-for delivery, these nanoparticles can also be engineered to
carry a certain compound that will enable them attach or even bind to molecules
that are on tumor cells. Hence, once they are attached, the nanoparticles can
safely deliver the drugs onto the specific tumor-site.

In addition, Nanoparticles can help with drug solubility. In that, for a certain
drug to work, it is necessary for the drug to enter the bloodstream thus it
means that it has to be soluble. However, there are certain drugs that are
insoluble such as the cancer drug-paclitaxed (Taxol) thus for such drugs to
work properly, they have to-be dissolved in a delivery-agent to ensure that they
get into the blood though this agents can sometimes cause allergic-reactions in

To avoid such allergic reactions when using delivery agents for insoluble drugs,
chemists come up with a nanoparticle from a naturally occurring protein
albumin. This nanoparticle carries the paclitaxel or even other insoluble drugs
and makes them soluble though with no allergic reactions.

When it comes to cancer treatment; often tumors have disordered as well as leaking
blood vessels sprouting through-and-off them. On instances, these vessels allow
chemotherapy-drugs to enter the tumour readily but since the chemotherapy
molecules tend to be so small, they as well diffuse through these same vessels
as well as out of the tumor whereby, attacking surrounding tissues.

Henceforth, since nanoparticles have larger molecules, they get trapped inside the cancer tumor in which they help kill the cancer cells effectively. After they have
deliver the drug-cargo into the cells, these nanoparticles can be designed in
such a way that they can break-down into harmless by-products which can be
important especially for children since they are still developing.

Types of Nanoparticles

nanoparticles in body

There are various types of nanoparticles though they vary in characteristics(structure) such as shape and size though an array of nanoparticle-structures are still being engineered and they include:

1.Shape of a DNA-origami

They tend not to be seen by the immune system as foreign body making it easier for them to transport drugs to diseased cells as they evade the immune system of the body thus reducing the drugs’ side-effects.

2. Polymeric nanocarriers

polymeric nanocarriers

Doctors combine a nanomedicine-polymeric nanocarrier with a drug which silences the cancer gene to deliver the drugs to the cancer-tumor. In-turn, these drugs limits the expression of the cancer-gene, blocks tumor growth as well as reduces the spread of cancer.

Applications of Nanomedicine

1. For cancer treatment

Nanoparticlees have large molecules hence this allows for various functional groups to be binded or attached to a nanoparticle that in-turn seek-out and bind to specific
tumor cells. to sum it up, based on the small-size of the nanoparticles 910-100nanometer), it enable them to accumulate at tumor sites preferentially since tumors lack an effective lymphatic-drainage system.

In reference to the shortcomings of conventional cancer chemotherapy such as drug resistance,
lack of solubility as well as lack of selectivity; with nanoparticles, all
these problems are solved. Through the use of nanoparticles, doctors can now
direct the chemotherapy to the-tumor area or site and minimize exposure
directed to the rest of patient’s body thus reduce side-effects and maximizes
effectiveness of the drug in use.

In addition, with nanotechnology, we can reduce the frequency in which we often take our drugs. On instances, our body can quickly as well as effectively remove
medications out of our system thus reducing the drug’s duration of action and
limiting the effectiveness of the drugs.

2. Imaging

In the area of “In ViVo imaging”, you can use nanoparticles contrast agents to clear out and improve contrast on images in ultrasound and MRI. When it comes to cardiovascular imaging, nanoparticles can be of great use since they have potential to enhance visualization of blood-pooling, angiogenesis, ischemia, atherosclerosis as well as focal areas in which inflammations are present.

in vivo imaging subject

Based on the unique property of nanoparticles; it’s small size molecules entails quantum dots-size-tunable light emission that when used in-conjunction with MRI produces exceptional images of tumor-sites. The nanoparticles-quantum dots tend to glow when they are exposed to ultraviolet-light enabling the surgeon to see the glowing-tumor as well as use it to accurately remove the tumor.

3. Sensing

Gold nanoparticles 9often tagged with short-segments of DNA) can be used to detect genetic-sequence in a sample. In addition, Sensor test-chips that contain thousands of nanowires can be used to detect proteins as well as other biomarkers that are left-behind by cancer cells. It can greatly help in detection as well as diagnosis of cancer while in the early stages basically from a few blood drops of a patent.

gold nanoparticles

4. Blood purification

blood purification

Magnetic micro-particles has been used in separating cells and proteins from complex media. This technology is known as Magnetic-activated cell sorting or rather Dynabeads. The purification-process is based on functionalized iron-oxide or rather carbon coated-metal nanoparticles that have ferromagnetic properties.

The binding-agents are  like antibodies, proteins.

Antibiotics or rather synthetic ligands are linked covalently to the particle

The binding agent interacts with the target species in which they form agglomerate. By applying an external magnetic-field gradient, it allows exerting a force onto the nanoparticles thus the particles are separated from the heavy fluid hence cleaning it from the-contaminants.

Due to the small size as well as large surface area of the nanomagnets, It makes it to have more advantageous properties as compared to hemoperfusion-a clinically used-technique for blood purification that is based on surface-absorption. The amazing properties of nanomagnetic are high-loading as well as accessible for binding agents; fast diffusion; high-selective towards the target compound; involves small hydrodynamic resistance as well as uses low dosage.

With this approach, doctos can treat various systemic infections like sepsis by just directly removing the pathogen. In addition, it can be used to remove endotoxins or even cytokines selectively, for compounds’ dialysis that isn’t accessible by traditional-dialysis methods.

5. Tissue engineering

Lastly, Nanotechnology can also be used for tissue engineering to help repair or reproduce or rather reshape damage tissue by using suitable nanomaterials though based on scaffolds as well as growth factors.

Nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes, grapheme, tungsten disulfide as well as molybdenum disulfide has been used as reinforcing-agents to mechanically fabricate strong biodegradable-polymeric nanocomposites for bone-tissue engineering applications.

How to Get a Job in Nanomedicine


If you are interested in finding a job in the field of medicine, you are prepared to dedicate your life to helping people.

From all of the vocations in the world, doctors have the most responsible task – to improve people’s health and help to relieve their pain.

Even the United States Government has created a nanotech initiative.

Even our prehistoric cousins quickly found out they can use remedies from nature to aid some of their problems.

Of course, they also believed in supernatural forces and prayed to their gods for salvation.

If they could see what is going on today in the field of medicine, they would probably think it is some kind of magic.

To be honest, even as a Homo sapiens living in the 21st century, you can also easily be left in doubt and amazement after finding out about some breakthroughs being made in the field of medicine and technology.

The combination of these two fields – medicine and technology, resulted in nanomedicine.

Let’s find out a bit more about nanomedicine and how to get a job in this field of work.

What Is Nanomedicine?

After analyzing the word nanomedicine, it is obvious something very small is used in medicine.

To be more precise – nanomaterials or nanoparticles.

One nanometre is one billionth part of a meter (nanoparticles usually range from 20 to 100 nanometers).

These tiny particles perform an amazing job in transporting drugs throughout the body.

This way the drugs reach places they couldn’t go on their own.

Nanoparticles have a broad application – from aiding food production to drug delivery and acting as biological computers.

Perhaps the most groundbreaking is their appliance in cancer treatment.

Scientists identified a tumor-promoting gene, and nanotechnology can be used to silence them.

The best thing is that nanomedicine young and just began to develop.

Nobody knows what the future brings, but it sure looks promising.

The world demand for experts in the field of biology and technology is very high.

The collaboration of diverse teams is encouraged and promoted, as the best mean to develop even more sophisticated models.

If you want to be a part of the team that practices nanomedicine, read on.

Perhaps one day you will also be one of the pioneers of a significant discovery.
How to Get a Job in Nanomedicine?
Education requirements

First thing’s first – you have to know nanotechnology to enter the world of nanomedicine.

A career in nanotechnology requires a solid formal education.

Courses in nanotechnology usually include nano-techniques and instruments, nanomaterials, microbiology, nanofabrication, and nanotechnology safety.

Additionally, some degree programs require that students fulfill internships in the field of nanotechnology.

Nanotechnologists working as medical scientists are required to have a Medical degree, Ph.D., or both.

In general, it is hard for medical scientists to find a job without a Ph.D.

Required Skills

Skills necessary for working in nanomedicine depend on the specific field of interest.

However, some skills are very appreciated for all fields together.

Besides a good knowledge in primary fields of work (medicine, biology, nanotechnology), the required skills include:

  • Numerical skills
  • Systematic approach and analysis
  • Logical thinking
  • IT skills
  • Teamwork
  • Writing skills
  • Good communication skills
  • Presentation skills
  • Effective time management
  • Effective financial management
  • Effective resource management

Where to Work in the field of Nanomedicine?

“New cancer-hunting nano-robots to seek and destroy tumors”, Nanotechnology in medicine isn’t just about size”, Nanomedicine could improve chemotherapy delivery”…

These are just a few of the headlines related to nanomedicine.

think of what future headlines will be – “We’ve finally beaten cancer”.

This doesn’t have to be far into the future but may happen in the following few years.

It must be very exciting to work on projects like these.

However, as a beginner, there is a long way ahead of you.

Luckily, nanomedicine has so many different fields of work, that there is plenty of room for everyone who would like to join.

You can practice nanomedicine in universities and different laboratories.

Don’t be limited to finding a job only in big companies.

There are medium and small-sized companies that offer excellent opportunities to perform research.

Some of the companies hiring in the US are Houston Methodist (Research Administrator), Hackensack Meridian Health (Postdoc Research Fellow, Immuno-Bioengineering), Pfizer (Formulation Scientist, Nanoparticles), The National Institutes of Health (Intravital Microscope Postdoc Fellow Position), George Mason University (Postdoctoral Research Fellow), and many more.

As for Europe, those are – Institute AMOLF in Amsterdam (Postdoc studies), Ikerbasque in Bilbao, Spain (Research Professor in Nanostructured Materials, Tyndall National Institute in Cork, Ireland (Researcher – Fabrication of III-Nitride NanoElectronic Devices, EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland (PhD and Postdocs in Polymer Interface Science and Nanomedicine), etc.

Australia and China also offer a significant amount of universities and laboratories that welcome new workers hungry for knowledge and ready to take action.

Fields of Work

Some of the most interesting fields of work when it comes to nanomedicine are:

Developing contrast agents for cell imaging – cadmium selenide, glowing nanoparticles are injected into tumors.

When exposed to UV, they glow and offer guidance for a precise tumor removal.

Therapeutics for treating cancer – nanoshells that can bind to cancerous cells and promote their death.

Developing nanoelectronic biosensors like diagnostic devices, developing drug delivery vehicles, neuro-electronic interfaces…

Tissue repair – nanomedicine can replace current treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants


As a nanomedicine worker, you will probably be engaged in laboratory work. Some of the implied responsibilities may include the following:

  • Careful planning of experiments
  • Conducting experiments
  • Using complex instruments
  • Data management
  • Recording results and extrapolating conclusions
  • Developing a multidisciplinary approach
  • Following safety and health regulations
  • Developing new products
  • Managing individual and group projects

Never Stop Improving Yourself

Employers appreciate greatly when someone works on their professional development because this shows initiative and a strong desire to work in that specific field.

Additional pieces of training are always a good choice.

Search for advice and be informed about the latest news and research performed around the world.

Although this is a promising field of work, you will probably stumble upon certain difficulties in finding a job.

You probably already have a vision of what exactly you would like to do, but be prepared for disappointments.

At least at first.

Later everything will be easier.

Be persistent and well-informed.

There are plenty of scholarships and job offers presented on the Internet on daily basis.

Your future career will mostly be determined depending on how much effort you’ve invested.

After you gain some experience, the employer will assign you with more serious tasks and responsibilities.

Whether you work in industry, laboratory or university, you can reach the very top.

There are no limits when it comes to making a difference.

How to Increase Testosterone in Men

Testosterone for men is also the driving force in achieving an erection as well as sending that craving urge to make love with your partner; or not.

Sperm is also produced as a result of the appropriate levels of testosterone in men. Without an adequate and constant presence of testosterone in the body, men experience a sort of male menopause; equally as horrible as the change women experience.

What are the normal testosterone levels in men?

Testosterone levels can be easily tested through your doctor’s office. Levels of testosterone can be gauged through a small amount of blood drawn from your arm.

Your doctor’s office will be able to tell you what your levels were on the day of the blood test as well as where you fall in the spectrum of testosterone levels men.

The levels of testosterone in your body depend on your age of course but the typical male testosterone level is between 250ng/dl to 850 ng/dl; the average is around 450ng/dl.

  • Some other signs you may notice other than a decrease in your sexual appetite, that your testosterone men levels may be low are:
  • A less impressive erection than usual.
  • Decreased energy levels throughout the day, most noticeably at night.
  • A noticeable decrease in your height.
  • Loss of interest in other activities you once enjoyed.

How to Increase Testosterone in Men

Bromelain enzymes are highly responsible for increasing the amount of testosterone in men and this is the reason that most of the natural supplements that can increase drive in men are having those herbal ingredients that possess this libido enhancing enzymes.

If you check out the current list, then you will discover that Kamdeepak Capsules are the best ones amongst others.

The specialized formulations of these herbal capsules not only increase your libido amount but also increase your desire for lovemaking.

These herbal capsules have been created on the basis of the major causes for lesser libido secretion and thus only those ingredients are being added that can provide the necessary strength to your genital organs so that a large amount of libido can be produced.

There are some recommended healthy foods that can increase testosterone in men and thus they need to be consumed along with these capsules.

Medical experts from the PhalloGauge Medical PDMP Center of Excellence’s penis enlargement team recommend leafy and green vegetables along with fresh fruits. These are highly essential in this regard and you must try to maintain your diet in an effective manner by including these vital penis foods.

These foods are highly enriched with lots of nutrients as a result of which you can gain a healthy lifestyle and this kind of healthy life leading is very much necessary for gaining satisfactory sex life.

These natural supplements that can increase sex drive in men are also having the capability of preventing different kinds of critical sexually-transmitted diseases in men that are quite common these days.

These diseases mainly cause either due to unprotected copulation or due to unhygienic lifestyle.

These diseases create a great harm to both the immunity and reproductive systems of men and thus you can get decreased testosterone levels along with lower libido.

There are certain essential foods that can increase testosterone in men that can provide enough support to the effectiveness of these herbal capsules.

Some of these useful foods include celery, raw oysters, bananas, avocados, almonds and many more.

These foods can also provide necessary nutrients for improving both physical and mental health of men and thus you can gain a lot of energy from the same.

You must use these natural supplements that can increase testosterone in men on a regular basis in order to gain full benefits.

You must take the same at least two times a day after every meal including lunch and breakfast.

You can also use different powdered booster supplements with these herbal capsules without any hazards.

These capsules are now available in different herbal stores and thus you can get them instantly.

You can have improved sexual drive along with high-level energy for making the copulation more effective.

Kamdeepak capsules contain those nutrients that are present with the recommended foods that can increase sex drive in men.

The male reproductive organs can also be nourished in a proper way in order to maintain the fertility for a longer period of time.

On the other hand, the immunity system of your body can be effectively improved for preventing different diseases.

It is known that testosterone levels go up, insulin levels gradually drop.

On the other hand, high levels of insulin are seen to get cut down the testosterone levels. Such an inverse relationship is particularly critical for men that are overweight or obese. This is because when they consume a high-carb meal, they might fall short of having a healthy testosterone level.

It is important for overweight men for limiting their calorie consumption so that their testosterone levels do not drop drastically.

Conversely, healthy testosterone levels are known for ensuring their blood glucose levels that do not go out of control.

The fixes are easier than what is actually thought. In fact, working on some daily habits can work wonders for ensuring manhood stays with you.

Some of the lifestyle changes that you can adapt so as to increase the level of testosterone in the body are:

Lose weight:

In case, you are actually overweight, losing a few pounds can boost the production of the hormone. Further, it can help in lowering the risk of getting diabetes by a huge margin. Not for forgetting the perks of a healthy weight, it might help in making you look good and might prevent heart diseases as well.

Sweat it out:

Enhanced physical activity and resistance training (weight lifting) which has a positive on testosterone levels. Moreover, following a regular exercise regimen might help in weight loss. By losing a lot weight to manageable levels you will realize that the testosterone levels will rise as the blood vessels in your body will be able to pump blood well.

Manage stress:

Major has been seen as a major factor which causes men to have low testosterone levels in the body. Just find a way of cutting down the stress levels. Consider things like joining a gym or just some meditation class

Get enough sleep:

Aim for having approx. 7 to 8 hours of sound sleep every night

If you have low testosterone in your body you should not worry as when you follow the above guide you will surely be able to increase the testosterone levels.

The Detailed Guide to Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering is a rapidly growing scientific field focused mainly on developing organ and tissue substitutes by controlling biophysical, biological, and bio mechanical parameters in the lab.

Tissue engineering applies the basic principles and methods of material science, bio engineering, and life sciences towards developing biological substitutes that will maintain, restore or improve tissue functions after being damaged by either diseases or traumatic processes.

Generally, tissue engineering includes combining living cells with a synthetic/natural support or scaffold to come up with a three dimensional tissue that is structurally, functionally, and mechanically similar to or better than the damaged tissue.

The development of such a tissue needs a keen selection of four key elements: scaffold, growth factors, extracellular matrix and cells.

Up to date, Much has been done in the field of tissue engineering, but more work needs to be done in this field.

Steps involved in tissue engineering

Tissue engineering involves various steps, which begin with cell selection, isolation, culturing of primary cells; inducing differentiation to certain phenotype; seeding and cultivating; designing of enough scaffolds, selection of proper materials to be used and how to process them, porosity, inter connectivity, surface characteristics, etc.

The process starts with cell selection

Cell selection is done by extracting solid or liquid tissue.

Fluid tissue, which is blood in most cases, is extracted using centrifugation or apheresis which is easier.

collagenase enzymes

Solid tissue involves more steps, the tissues minced, then trypsin and collagenase enzymes are used to get rid of the extracellular matrix, leaving the cells floating which are also extracted again by centrifugation or apheresis.

centrifuge device being used

Next is Cell isolation and cultivation which is done using the individuals’ autologous cells obtained from the same person’s healthy tissues.

Lately, scientists have been using mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow because these cells that can develop into various tissue types.

Other cell types that are used during isolation and cultivation are allogenic (donated from the same species) and heterologous (donated from as different species).

In these cases, sometimes the host’s immune system rejects the cells and there is a possible transmission of diseases from the donor to the host.

human immune system

In both cases, these are risks that need to be considered.

Then implantation of the extracted cells into artificial structure which can support a three dimensional tissue formation that resembles the extracellular matrix is done

Scaffolds need to meet certain requirements: they should be biocompatible, biodegradable and non-brittle in nature.

The scaffold should also be functionalized with bio molecules while providing nutrients for the cells.

After the tissue is fully developed, its implanted into the living body.

Finally, the tissue is analyzed for performance and compatibility.

Assembly methods in tissue engineering

Tissues are usually assembled in various ways.

They include:

Self-assembly – a fabrication technique known as micro masonry is used in self assembling micrometric and sub-micrometric three dimensional units into larger structures – this is the process of encapsulating living cells in polymer cubes.

Liquid-based template assembly – This is whereby a liquid or air surface established by Faraday waves is used as a template for the formation of the three dimensional network.

Additive manufacturing – This is the three dimensional printing of models of organs.

3d printing tech

Several layers of living cells are then deposited on a gel medium or a sugar matrix which then slowly develop into three dimensional structures, a good example is when endothelial cells are printed in ring sets and then they are incubated and fused into tubes.

This can be used to grow organs like the liver and kidneys in the near future.

Scaffolding- This is regenerating a similar tissue from a host or a donors’ body

Advantages of Tissue Engineering

– Tissue engineering has very many advantages, from potentially helping people to conquer illnesses and disease or illness to curing extreme and moderate arthritis in patients.

– Tissue engineering also has the ability to prolong our lives by making general quality of our body cells much better.

– Burn victims can also benefit greatly from this venture because tissue engineering can regenerate and restore burned skin.

The restored skin is artificial but very similar to living skin.

By now, scientists are trying to come up with a proper working lung.

artifiical lung device

But, we lack the proper technology and equipment, but with time, tissue engineers be able to develop any body organs which will one day save millions of lives per year.

Building organs will make organ transplant unnecessary and an individual who needs an organ will not have to be on that organ waiting list waiting for the needed organ.

Disadvantages Tissue Engineering

The disadvantages of tissue engineering are fewer than the advantages.

One disadvantage is the possible existence of hidden diseases in the base tissue.

There is a possibility of transmitting hidden diseases while reconstructing a tissue matter, something that scientists are trying their best to prevent; however, these diseases are not easily noticed with or current technology.

Another disadvantage is a lot of ethical issues

Those who are against tissue engineering are always bringing up these ethical issues.

Hopefully, these issues won’t slow down the growth of tissue engineering.

Tissue engineering has a nice approach of guiding, promoting, and enhancing the ability of tissues to regenerate, assisting to recover functionality and shape of body parts where one cannot heal naturally

In fact, promising advances have been made over the last few years in different area which include bones, heart, cartilage, and pancreas.

Furthermore, Tissue Engineering is transforming how we study human pathophysiology and physiology, resulting to a huge impact on the innovation new therapies.

These 3D models can fill the gap between animal models, 2d models and biomedical research.

But still more research is needed tissue engineering, especially on choosing the material since it appears to the main issue.

More efforts should be geared towards the getting the best out of synthetic scaffolds, because they can be custom made depending on the custom needs and applications.

Tissue Engineering changes very rapidly, so expect more opportunities and solutions from this discipline which surely changes year-by-year.

How to Increase Penis Size: Penis Extender Methods

How to Increase Penis Size

Are you in search of the best and safest way on how to increase penis size?

People from all over the world have tried and tried for the best ideas, and have met with failure. That is, up until now.

They have gone from pillar to post, trying to find the best methods on how to increase penis size.

Many doctors have researched this topic and reported on the different methods, like those described here for penile and penis enlargement.

However, the best is the penis extender.

These are also known as penile extenders and penile traction devices.

Professional Penis Extender Review

Even Dr. Jeff Ferrara, MD, a medical doctor who specializes in men’s health (andrology) and how to increase penis size can testify to extender effectiveness and has personally reviewed these top 3 penis extenders.

Enhancing the male organ has been a long-time problem; it didn’t start with this generation.

If you have the problem of a small sized penis, then you should read about the penis extender.

You will pick up using natural methods to increase your penis size below.

Penis Extender vs. PC Muscle flexing

How to Increase Penis Size

Method #1
This is a straightforward technique, and everyone can use the penis extender.

This is a technique every man who has a small penis size should consider using if they want to learn how to increase penis size.

This is a very excellent and powerful penis enlargement method because aside from increasing the penis size, it also comes with the benefit of strengthening the erector muscles of the penis, making erections even harder and lasting even longer.

It’s great to use in conjunction with the penis extender.

Penis Extenders are simply fantastic devices.

This means that you get to kill two birds with one stone using this exercising technique: you get to both increase your penis length and boost your erection magnitude with a penis extender.

To be sure you know where your PC muscles are, try to stop your urine while you are in the middle of taking a pass.

This little technique will help in strengthening your penile muscles and also give you perfect control of your erections.

Oh, and it is a popular method on how to increase penis size.

Penis Extender vs. Jelqing

How to Increase Penis Size

Method #2

Jelqing plus using a penis extender is just one of many different ways on how to increase penis size.

This is an exercise that involves concentrating the flow of blood in such a way that it forces your penis to grow longer.

This is a perfect thing for increasing penis size since better control of your muscles directly translates into more flow of blood to the vital organs of the body.

To use this exercise, you will work by applying pressure to your penis, concentrating on blood flow, and forcing your pelvic muscles to contract and relax.

The penis extender works both ways. There will be an increase in the flow of blood around your penis, forcing it to grow even more significant.

Apart from that, your penis muscles would also get harder, and you will be able to have and sustain a massive erection.

So get that penis extender now so you can start increasing penis size.

Another way to increase the size of your penis is to use of penis extenders.

These make use of traction devices or small weights to enlarge the penis.

It is important to note that the device must be worn on a flaccid penis.

To use it, insert your penis from the base ring of the unit, and then place the silicon ring on the head.

Then strap the comfort pad into the device, and pull the loop down until the head is properly secured.

You should then proceed to adjust tension levels ensuring that you do not suffer any discomfort.

Then attach the extender at the tip of the penis and you are good to go.

For the extender to work, you will need to wear it for about 5-8 hours every day.

It is usually not visible under your clothes, so this need not be a concern for you.

It is best to wear the extender loose fitting clothes, such as sweatpants and shorts.

If for some reason you cannot wear the device for the said number of hours, it will still work, albeit at a slower pace.

Additionally, the extender will help boost both the girth and width of the penis, thus increasing penis size.

OK-sign exercise for the penis extenders

How to increase penis size with this technique? You might require some form of lubrication.

Baby oil will do just fine if you have it. In using this method, you should shape your fingers into the OK sign, and use it to grip the head of your penis.

Great to use for increasing penis size.

While this is going on, ensure that you tightly grip the penis by forming an “O” with your thumb and the index finger.

Using this method, you should stretch your penis for up to fifteen seconds of applied strain. When your time is done, rub the penis for a while, and then start all over again.

This is crucial for your penile organ.

Continue this exercise every day but take note that you should change the direction from time to time with the penis extender usage.

You can stretch forward, backward, sideways, always changing the course of your pull.

These penis stretching exercises are critical if you want to learn how to increase penis size.

These penis stretching exercises and the penis extender are top-rate exercises which are guaranteed to add inches to the length of your penis.

They have been medically tested and approved to be effective without resulting in any side effects.

Using this technique, you can save a lot of money while being able to bring satisfaction to your partner the next time sex is on the menu.

If increasing penis size was so irrelevant, why are so many men clamoring for buying a penis extender?

Well, the fact is that with a woman having many an erogenous zone unexplored with a small shaft at hand, men do have a reason to shout for a more significant gift than the rest!

And if you thought methods on how to increase penis size was not in demand or fashion or both, check the web for the same.

With the promise of anonymity and diplomatic solutions to the ones seeking the same, the Internet has become a large hunting ground for men displeased with the size of their penis.

And as with too many cooks, the broth gets spoiled, certain products and exercise are being advertised online that are not helpful to help increasing penis length – or help in anything at that.

So what do you think is the right tool to get your pride a push towards bigger glory?
Well, the best solution at hand apart from pills (most of which happen to be fake anyway) is penis extenders.

How to Increase Penis Size: Penis Extenders

How to Increase Penis Size

Method #3

penis extender parts on floor

While the rest of the exercises and physical tools have not had much verification or results to show off, penis extenders have had both.

So how do they work?

Penis Extenders are the most popular method on how to increase penis size.

Penis extenders are a compiled set of apparatus that helps put pressure on the length of the shaft, in a regular and obvious manner – which after a set time frame relents and becomes bigger.

Flexible and compiled on site by the user himself, a penis extender can be as easy to wear and comfortable as any other bodily accessory – for instance, a wristwatch or an armband.

The only difference is that wearing this is restricted to the penis, and wearing the penis extender is beneficial to the individual, unlike the other mentioned accessories.

Also, penis extenders are sans any side effects if you are ready to ignore the slight bruises or cuts you encounter while using the apparatus on a regular interval.

So if you look at it, getting a penis extension is fairly easy – provided you have found the right dealer to source your penis extenders from.

Remember, safe penis enlargement should be your main priority, for callous enthusiasm can not only lead you up a blind alley of no results, but they can also kill your sexual performance through issues like erectile dysfunction, forced Peyronie’s, etc.

While looking for a dealer that provides penis extenders online, make sure you check for accreditations and verified certificates from physicians first.

Once you have done that, test with some of the clients who have used the product before.

This is tricky because not many of the clients would like to own up to the fact that they have used the product for increasing penis length.

Once you have got such reviews in exchange of the condition of anonymity – your battle for a genuine penis extender product is finally over.

Remember, it is easy to settle for an inferior product for a compromised price, but you are putting your most prized asset in the harm’s way for the same.

How to Increase Penis Size

To many men, penis size matters a great deal.

Bigger penises are associated with more pleasure during intercourse.

Most men also believe that they will be better able to please their lovers if they have bigger male members.

Unfortunately however, a good percentage of men feel that their penises are smaller than average.

This often leads to feelings of inadequacy and insecurity.

Many such men would give anything for an extra inch in penis size.

Luckily, there are actually a number of ways through which you can enlarge your cock.

How to Increase Penis Size

How to Increase Penis Size: Penis Pumps

Penis pumps are a popular way not just increase penis size, but also to treat erectile dysfunction.

The science behind the pump is simple; the pump suctions air from an enclosed penis, which in turn stimulates blood flow to your male member, which ultimately leads to a larger penis size.

The pump package contains:

  • A ring or seal
  • A tube
  • The pump itself

To use it, you first need to place the tube over your penis.

You might consider using lubrication to minimize friction or just make the entire process painless.

Then you have to use the pump to suck out the air from the tube, which is how you get blood to flow to the penis.

The pump can either be battery powered, in which case you merely need to turn it on, or it could be hand-held, which means you have to do the pumping yourself.

Then you will have to place the seal at the base of your penis for about 30 minutes.

The purpose of the seal is to restrict blood flow out of the penis.

For as long as blood remains in the penis, it will be large and erect and over time, this will increase its overall size.

One of the biggest advantages of using a penis pump is that it is actually proven to work to increase penis size.

Sure, you cannot expect your penis to grow 2cm longer overnight, but it will certainly increase penis size over time.

Another perk of the pump is that it is fairly affordable.

Once you buy the pump, you will not need to make any other monetary sacrifices in order to increase penis size.

Finally, the pump is easy to use and is not very time consuming.

On the whole, a penis pump is one of the best ways to increase penis size.

How to Increase Penis Size: Penis Exercises

Penis exercises are also a great way of the many on how to increase penis size.

The most popular size-boosting exercise is referred to as jelqing, and it is incredibly easy to perform.

To do it, form an O-gesture using your thumb and index finger.

Place the fingers at the base of your penis, and make it small until you feel some pressure on your member.

Move your fingers towards the head until you reach the tip.

Repeat the exercise for 20- 30 minutes, but stop if you feel any kind of irritation or pain.

How to Increase Penis Size: Surgery

You can also undergo surgery to increase both the girth and width of your penis and increase penis size.

However, you would be well advised to consider this as a last resort owing to the risks associated with the procedure.

On the brighter side, a surgery will give you immediate results, which is definitely a big plus.

Surgeries for increasing penis size can be categorized into two main types; increasing penis width and increasing penis length.

To increase the width of the penis, fat is usually sourced from a different part of your body and placed in the penis.

This makes it larger, by up to 4 cm.

Surgery meant to increase penis length is a tad more complex, and involves the cutting the ligament where the penis attaches to the pubic area followed by a skin graft performed at the base to enlarge the penis.

With this kind of surgery, you can expect your penis to grow by up to 2 cm.

There are two things you have to keep in mind before you choose this method of increasing penis size.

First, if you are not circumcised, you will first have to undergo the procedure before the surgery.

Secondly, you will have to abstain from all kinds of sexual activity, including masturbation, for up to 6 weeks to allow for proper healing.

How to Increase Penis Size: Conclusion

If you are looking to increase the size of your penis, you surely can’t run short of options.

You can opt to use the pump, which is both affordable and effective, or even the extenders.

You could also carry out exercises to enlarge your penis.

As a last resort, you can look to surgery to increase penis size.

In addition to these remedies, try exercising and leading a healthier life as well.

Getting rid of belly fat will certainly boost your perception of your penis size.

Without a doubt, it is a great way of increasing your confidence and be able to meet the expectations of your woman and know exactly how to increase penis size.

Copyright © 2019 ORC-DC Health Institute. All rights reserved.

More Reading:

How to increase penis size with more testosterone
Tissue Engineering to increase penis size
Penis size and cancer.
Penis blood purification.
Heart Nanotechnology
Lab on a chip tech
Penis sizes
Penis and erection size
Sexual activities for penises
Sex and penis size before marriage.
How penis size is determined
Micropenis cannot be used to increased penis size
Endocrine disruptor
History of sex and penises increasing.
Penises are not used in asexual reproduction.

The Ultimate Guide To Cancer

Cancer can be simply defined as a condition where there is uncontrolled multiplication of cells in a specific area in the body.

These cells that multiply uncontrollably are the ones referred to as cancer and they are either tumors or malignant cells.

Cancer is not a condition that is experienced by only human beings.

Animals and all the other living organisms in the world can be affected by cancer.

Cancer is among the deadliest condition in the world, manifesting in over 200 types in the bodies of living organisms.

Even the U.S. government is concerned about cancer and it’s effect on the population.

Cancer has many causes from chemical toxins, genetics and even radiation exposure among others.

The symptoms of cancer and treatment vary from one type of cancer to another.

The causes of cancer

Any substance, chemical or compound that has the ability to induce uncontrollable cell division and multiplication is a potential cause of cancer in the body.

carcinogens of cancer

While some causes of cancer are not known, many others have already been discovered and established.

Most of the causes of cancer can be classified under environmental or health and lifestyle.

However, there are some types of cancer that also occur due to the genetic make-up of the individual person.

It is not possible for scientists and specialists to identify the main events that lead to development of cancers in every individual.

However, there are general causes of cancer that are the most common and they are discussed below.

a) Exposure to chemicals

This is the most common cause of cancer in the bodies of living organisms.

Some of the chemicals that can lead to development of cancer in the body include; asbestos, benzene, vinyl chloride, cadmium, nickel, aflatoxin and even tobacco smoke.

b) Radiation

radiation cancer

Radiation is also another cause of cancer.

Exposure to radiation from the sun, X-rays, and other machines that produce beta, alpha and gamma rays can lead to the development of cancer.

c) The genetic make-up

Some types of cancer including ovarian, melanoma, skin and prostate cancer have been closely linked to the genetic make-up.

These are the types of cancer that are inherited from closely related people and they are commonly referred to as hereditary.

d) Exposure to certain pathogens

cancer pathogen

Human Papillomavirus, Schistosoma species, Helicobacter pylon and Hepatitis viruses among others are just but some of the pathogens that can lead to cancer.

A large group of people that are suffering from cancer have had attacks by either of these viruses at least once in their lives.

However, it is important to know that almost everyone in the world has been exposed to at least one of risk factors for cancer but not everyone develops cancer.

In the same case, there are those people that have genes that are loosely linked with cancer but they do not develop the condition.

Generally the more a person is exposed to these risk factors for cancer, the higher their chances of developing the condition.

The most common types of cancer

As indicated above, there are 200+ types of cancer in the world today.

There are some cancers that many people have never heard about because they are extremely rare.

However, there are those types of cancers that are very common and almost everyone is familiar with them.

Cancer is the leading cause of human death in the world today.

In men, the most common types of cancer are; lung cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer.

In women, the most common types of cancer are; colorectal cancer, breasts cancer and lung cancer.

In children, the most common types of cancer are; brain tumors, lymphoma and leukemia.

General signs and symptoms of cancer

The signs and symptoms of the condition will greatly depend on what type it is, the degree of development and where it occurs.

However, some of the cancer patients do not show any signs at all until the cancer is greatly developed.

Below are the general signs and symptoms of cancer and one should go for a checkup immediately when they experience most of the symptoms:

  • A cough that does not go away.
  • Difficulty during swallowing and chronic indigestion problems.
  • Lump development in the testicles, breasts and any other part of the body.
  • Bleeding that is extremely prolonged and unusually long discharges e.g. nipple secretions and sores that do not heal.
  • A persistent sore throat.
  • Change in shape, size and even color of a mole or a wart.
  • A sudden change in bladder and bowel habits.

Other signs that may indicate towards the direction of cancer development include constant fatigue, vomiting and nausea and loss of appetite and therefore weight.

Recurring infections and fevers are also some of the other signs and symptoms to look out for.

Cancer diagnosis and staging

cancer medical device

In order for the professional to identify whether you have cancer or not and the stage of development it is in, several examinations have to be carried out.

First, a history and a physical exam have to be carried out to identify the possible type of cancer you have and its location in the body.

X-rays, ultrasound, endoscopy and MRI and CT scans are some of the tools used.

However, in order to be sure of the nature, stage of development and location of the cancer, a biopsy has to be done.

Most of the cancers have 4 stages.

Can cancer be treated?

Whether a cancer can be treated and the method of treatment varies from one caner to another.

In some of the cases, the diagnosis and treatment occur at the same time, surgically, during the obtaining of the sample for biopsy.

However in other cases, the patients may be taken through protocol and sequenced treatments.

In such a case, the patients are treated using radiation therapy, a combination of several treatments, surgery or chemotherapy.

chemotherapy response

When the cancer is found to be at a developed stage where nothing can be done to cure it, then the patient is put under palliative therapy.

This is a combination of treatments and medicines that reduce pain and manifestation of the symptoms, to improve the quality of life of the patient.


Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world today.

This is because when it id discovered late, then there is nothing that can be done to reverse it.

In addition to the treatments listed above, there are other publications in the internet on alternative treatments of cancer.

Eating a healthy diet, working out and even incorporating certain foods in the diet are said to help treat cancer.

Even though most of these publications have been found to reduce the symptoms of cancer, there is no proof that they can treat cancer.

It is therefore important for cancer patients to carefully consult with their doctors before they begin using these alternative treatments and home remedies.

What is “Lab on a Chip” Technology?

Lab on a chip is a gadget that is used to incorporate single or numerous laboratory functions on to an integrated circuit known as a chip.

It is a technology that allows the procedures that are undertaken in the laboratory by analyzing chemicals to be done using a compact device.

By the use of the lab on a chip technology, there are many advantages that come with it.

With this technology, you are able to carry out analysis of your samples in your location simply and easily instead of having to transfer the samples to a bigger laboratory for the same analysis to be done.

Due to this, there can be a difference in the fluid dynamics.

fluid mechanics dynamics

However, it is only on a very small scale.

As a result, doing the analysis in your location helps control the movement and interference of the samples.

Therefore, the reactions will tend to be more efficient thereby getting accurate results.

Other than the many challenges that come with the development of the “lab on a chip” devices, the main one is designing and fabricating them on a small scale that can be functional and cost saving.

However, in the recent past, there has been a possibility due to advanced materials and techniques to do with micro and nanofabrication.

Lab on a cheap combines numerous technological sectors.

However, the main areas of technology that combine all of them and enable the whole project to work are the nanofluidics and microfluidics.

microfluidics nanotech

Microfluidics is the management of how the small quantities of fluids are able to flow inside the channels that are measured in micrometers.

On the other hand, nanofluidics enhances the process; it handles the progression of specific macro-molecules that are in the solution.

This is the most important area of this project that one has to understand and commercialize when developing functional devices that can be used for the “lab on a chip” activities.

How Lab on Chips Work

The microfluidics sector developed majorly because of the reliable and accurate analytical techniques that were used.

Such was like the high-performance liquid chromatography and the capillary electrophoresis.

electrophoresis test

With the use of these techniques, true and precise results from samples in small sizes were achieved.

The use of these methods shows positive progress.

As a result, it was a good idea to take a step ahead to implement the practices in a compact way as much as possible.

The lab on a chip technology contains sensing capabilities.

This is because of the optical and the electrochemia sensors that are installed inside the chip.

Other than that, there is also the micro-total analysis system whose main function is to integrate and reduce the chemistry assays in the analysis.

With the lab on a chip technology, you can be able to attain a high-quality screening and automation.

The lab on a chip technology has its attention on the application of these practices in the diagnostics sector; for instance, using the technology in diagnostic devices that are found in the medical offices and other places that have no ability to access the lab and its equipment.

Other than that, life sciences, as well as medicine, have the ability to put this technology into practice.

This is because it can be used in the protein crystallization as well as DNA/RNA sequencing.

dna strands

In addition, some engineers came to a conclusion that the lab on a chip device is cost efficient in relation to lab tests linked to HIV, Lyme disease, and syphilis.

This is because the device is capable of using tiny volumes of the fluid for the biochemical analyses.

Mostly, by the use of lab equipment, large amounts of fluids like blood would be needed.

Again, the expensive chemical reagents would be required in the same amounts which would be very costly.

Moreover, chemical compounds from the use of such techniques as positron emission tomography can be used in the “lab on a chip” experiments since their samples are compressed to the size of a single cell.

Advantages of “lab on a chip” technology

This technology enables you to undertake your analysis by using small amounts of fluid and the results tend to be reasonable and accurate.

As a result, it is cost saving since it does not require large quantities of samples.


It also takes a short time to get the results.

More so, with the use of small volumes of fluid, you can take control over the concentration and interaction of the samples.

Due to this, there will be a reduction in the waste of chemicals.

Through mass production, the lab on a chip technology helps develop efficient systems to be used for analysis.

Disadvantages of “lab on a chip” technology

liquid on chip

There are physical and chemical effects that are of importance when it comes to the micro-scale level that the lab on a cheap technology operates on.

These effects are roughness of the surface, capillary forces and the chemical interactions that occur between the materials.

As a result of this, there arise complications which would not have been there in case the analyses were done with the use of the lab equipment.

Further, there is the principle of detection which, in line with the lab on a chip, might not agree with the microscale dynamics which may cause low signal-to-noise ratio.


Due to the fact that the lab on a chip technology can use only 10 percent of the samples to obtain efficient and accurate results, it goes a long way in the medical and other related fields since it promotes research since it carries out complex biochemical analyses by itself.

In addition, the device automatically performs the activities that could use skilled labor in the lab and the outcomes are always sensitive and reliable.

This lab on a chip technology is time and cost saving.

Due to this, its market is growing and sooner than you know, this practice will dominate the future medical sectors such as diagnosis and treatment.

Despite the fact that building this device is a big challenge, especially when commercializing the technology, its success has been demonstrated since a few “lab on a chip” based systems have been introduced to the market.

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